I have found some more usages of “special case pattern” coined by Martin Fowler and I have tried to name them rhetorically to make you remember – dummy, dead, and deformed.
Handling null can be problematic in code organization and management. So, there are two very common patterns used by experienced developers now and then. One is “Null object pattern”, where you return an object which states a missing object, and another is “Special Case Pattern”. This article is to “How you can write effective objects for those patterns and why you should use them instead of returning null or throwing exceptions”